Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science
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V. Aleksandrov, V. Krasteva, M. Paunov, M. Chepisheva, M. Kousmanova, H. M. Kalaji, V. Goltsev
Abstract: A deficiency of any essential macro (N, P, S, Ca, Mg, K) and micro (Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Cl, Mn and Fe) elements has a major influence on the development of plants. Deficits of some elements result in external features in plants. These physical marks often overlap with each other or are similar to those obtained as a result of an infection, and it is why they cannot serve as a sign for accurate diagnosis. The determination of lacking elements requires analysis of the soil or plant tissue content, or a combined analysis. Plants react to shortage of the nutrient components and, therefore, their functional analysis is preferable to soil analysis for monitoring of the nutrient deficiency. In this study the mineral defi ciency in nutrient solution was evaluated by the stress response of the plants estimated by leaves photosynthetic activity. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) plants were grown hydroponically in the Hoagland nutrient medium – full or lacking K, Ca or Fe. All plants were grown in a full Hoagland nutrient solution for 10 days, and then the experimental plants were transferred to modified solution. The bean plants were decapitated after 7 days of growth in the unmodifi ed medium. The photosynthetic activity was estimated by analysis of the chlorophyll fluorescence using JIP-test approach that refl ects functional activity of Photosystems I and II and of electron transfer chain between them, as well as the physiological state of the photosynthetic apparatus as whole. The comparison of Phaseolus vulgaris and Zea mays showed different impact of each deficiency on the photosynthetic machinery of the two species. The high sensitivity of plants and specifi city of primary stress reactions of the photosynthesis to mineral deficiencies outline good perspectives for fluorescent analysis application in agricultural industry. This approach is fast and cheap, and can be implemented in vivo and in situ measuring conditions.
Keywords: chlorophyll a fluorescence; JIP test; nutrient deficiency; plant stress
Date published: 2017-10-19
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