Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science
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Vitality and longevity of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) accessions in North Central Bulgaria
Aneliya Katovaorcid
Abstract: Perennial ryegrass is the most widely grown temperate grass species globally as a source of forage (grazing, hay, silage) or for amenity use. It is a part of landscape, protects soil from water and wind erosion, enriches it with organic substances and improves its fertility. During the period 2015-2020 in the Institute of Forage crops (IFC) – Pleven a collection nursery was studied in field non-irrigated conditions on leached black soil, in block duplicate method, in 2 replications with a total of 19 accessions of perennial ryegrass, with 50 individual plants each (25 plants for forage and 25 plants – for seeds), including 14 varieties and 5 ecotypes, 10 tetraploid and 9 diploid, from Bulgaria (BG), Belgium (BE), and Romania (RO). The aim is to determine the vitality per year and longevity (after many years, more than 3 - 4) of perennial ryegrass collection accessions and to make a selection of the most vital and long - lasting genotypes. Scale of survival according to the International Classifier for the family Poaceae (Bukhteeva et al., 1985) was used - limiting factors of the environment are cold - winter, drought and high temperatures – summer. An autumn inventory of the individual plants no./% was carried out annually, as 25 plants per sample =100%., and vitality classification as follows: Very Low - less than 1 to 20% of plants are left alive; Low - more than 21 to 50%; Medium - more than 51% to 70%; High - more than 71 to 90%; Very High - more than 90% of the plants are still alive. Computer statistical processing of the data (via Excel, at P=0.05) included variance analyses. Data on vitality and longevity are characterized by: marginal values (min and max), arithmetic mean (x), standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV,%). Variation was considered weak, moderate, or strong at CV values, respectively: up to 10%; >10-20%, and >20% (Dimova and Marinkov, 1999). When grown for fodder, the local ecotypes Sokolare, Topolovgrad and Bekovi skali are the most viable by years and the longest surviving up to 5 years, with the percentage of plants alive in the fifth year being the highest for the Sokolare ecotype. Ecotype Sokolare is strongly influenced by the method of use, which is the longest-lasting and most viable when grown for fodder - 5 years and the shortest - when grown for seeds - 3 years. All diploid varieties live up to 4 years, and only the Harmoniya variety up to 5 years, with the Bulgarian varieties Harmoniya and Strandzha being the most viable and long-lasting when grown for fodder. Harvesting once a year for seeds extends the life cycle of diploid varieties up to 5 years and for the Harmoniya variety - up to 6. The Bulgarian tetraploid varieties Tetrany, Tetramis and the Belgian varieties Floris, Melpetra and Melverde are the most durable and long-lasting. One-time harvesting per year for seeds extends the life cycle of the tetraploid varieties up to 5 years, and for the Bulgarian varieties Tetrany, Tetramis and the Belgian varieties Floris, Melpetra and Melverde - up to 6.
Keywords: diploid; ecotype; longevity; perennial ryegrass; tetraploid; variety; vitality
Citation: Katova, A. (2024). Vitality and longevity of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) accessions in North Central Bulgaria. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 30(3), 431–444
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Date published: 2024-06-25
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