Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science
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Main trends of dairy industry in Ukraine
Ruslana Stavetska, Olena Babenko, Iryna Starostenko and Serhii Cherniak
Abstract: The paper analyzes the main trends in the dairy industry development in Ukraine over the past decades. During this period, there has been a fivefold reduction in the number of dairy cattle (2925.2 thousand heads in 2021) and a twofold increase in average milk yield (6101 kg in 2019). On the basis of crossing females of local breeds with bulls of Holstein, Swiss and some other breeds, four Ukrainian breeds of dairy cattle were created. Initially, there was a tendency to replace local breeds (Black-and-White, Simmental, Red Steppe, Lebedynska) with newly created breeds (Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy, Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy, Ukrainian Red dairy and Ukrainian Brown dairy). However, Holstein bulls are now widely used for insemination of cows and heifers (except Ukrainian Brown dairy). And today, these breeds are developing under absorbing crossbreeding and herds of Ukrainian dairy breeds are gradually becoming Holstein. In parallel with an increase in milk production, this has brought some negative elements associated with the use of high-yielding Holstein breed. In particular, these include the reducing of cow longevity, deteriorating of their reproduction ability and decreasing of replacement heifers’ number. The searches for ways of solving the problem as well as the preservation of local breeds of dairy cattle are urgent tasks of dairy farming in Ukraine.
Keywords: breed; dairy cattle; productive and reproductive performance; replacement heifers
Date published: 2022-11-01
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