Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science
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Evaluation of the development of fruit growing in Bulgaria (I part)
Vanya Manolova
Abstract: Fruit-growing is a branch of agriculture which originates from ancient times. It is essential for the economy and sustainable development of the Bulgarian agricultural regions. The study tries to explain what is happening to the fruit branch today in the context of its historical development. The purpose of this article is to determine and evaluate the stages in which fruit growing was developed over the years – from its emergence to the present days. In order to achieve this, the study analyzes the development of fruit growing in Bulgaria; estimates the stages it goes through; evaluates the production potential of the fruit branch; analyzes and evaluates fruit export and import. The study considers a long period of time, which requires it to be divided into two parts. Author determined four stages from occurrence of fruit growing to the present day: first (1990 – 1924), second (1925 – 1944), third (1945 – 1989) and fourth (1990 – 2018). This first part of the study discusses the period from the beginning of the 20th century to the end of the 80s. The article concludes that the development of fruit growing begins on a solid basis, including the necessary legislation and scientific assistance. The achievements were consolidated and expanded by 1944. Fruit growing becomes a commodity branch, important for the economy and regions. Production and exported potential expanded. Third stage (1945 – 1989) had the longest duration (45 years). The main feature of this stage is that the land and the other assets were forcibly seized from the private farmers and were given for use by Soviet model cooperatives. Despite some achievements: the creation of new scientific units, good interaction between science and practice, successful specialization and concentration of production, improvement of crop production technologies, the unhealthy economic base led to a crisis in the sector in the late 80’s.
Keywords: average yields; development stages; foreign trade; fruit areas; production; production potential
Date published: 2021-09-13
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