Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science
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Fractionation analysis of potentially toxic elements in apples for evaluation of their availability to humans
Veronika Mihaylova, Valentina Lyubomirova, Boyan Todorov and Rumyana Djingova
Abstract: The main objective of this work was to get information on the Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn content in different apple fractions and their digestion in the human gastrointestinal tract. A sequential analytical approach was applied to two apples varieties from the commercial network of Bulgaria, focusing on their total element concentrations, extractability in water, ethanol and acetone. The oral bioaccessibility of the elements was evaluated using the PBET and extraction with pepsin+HCl and n-octanol. The element concentrations were measured using ICP-MS. The obtained results showed the highest percentage of extraction for all analyzed elements in the water fraction and similar low extractable concentrations in the ethanol and acetone fractions for both varieties. The data from the in vitro extraction procedures showed high bioaccessibility in human gastrointestinal tract of Cu, Mn, Zn and Cd, while for Ni and Pb only 20÷30% of the total concentration were bioavailable.
Keywords: fractionation analysis; ICP-MS; oral bioaccessibility; Physiologically-Based Extraction Test (PBET); toxic elements
Date published: 2020-08-31
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